November 27, 2023


In set up

SNAPPER: Prospective Evaluation of Renal effects

We are inviting you to take part in this sub study because you have joined the SNAP platform or registry, and you have a risk factor for developing injury to your kidneys.

  • Patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections can develop kidney damage due to becoming unwell and also the therapies to treat the infection. This means that some patients can be at an increased risk of developing kidney damage.
  • Your medical team currently watches your kidney function using a blood test called ‘creatinine’. Wehn creatinine increases, this is a sign of kidney damage, but it can take 48 hours to go up after kidney injury has occurred.
  • This research study is looking at whether a urine test can provide an earlier indication of kidney damage.
  • We think that when damage starts to occur, the kidney releases molecules (called biomarkers) to show that it is being damaged, and that we can detect these in the urine.

This sub-study is being conducted in Australia.

Lead Investigator: Amy Legg - Brisbane Women's Hospital, Menzies School of Health


What will the substudy involve – more information

Please read the below information to learn more about the assessments and tests involved in this sub-study.

  • Urine tests: Your urine will be collected daily for the first 5 days of this sub study. We will check if any ‘biomarkers’ are being released from the kidneys and if these markers could be used early to detect kidney damage.

We will also be using results from your blood tests that are already being done by the hospital. We will not take any additional blood tests from you.

Risks and benefits of taking part in the sub study


  • The risks of participating in this sub-study are low - the only extra samples needed are urine samples, which carry no extra risk.


  • You may not benefit from this study, but it is possible that the results from this study will help us better understand what happens to the kidneys during infection.
  • Research like this may also help us to improve the care and diagnosis of patients with kidney damage into the future.
Where will my sub study information be collected and stored?
  • Your information will be kept strictly confidential.
  • Your information collected for this sub-study will be stored in a database hosted by the Menzies School of Health Research. This data will be de-identified, meaning you would not be able to be identified by these data.
More information about storage and future research using my samples collected for this sub-study
  • Your samples will be assigned a unique identifying code, but not your name or other individually identifiable information.
  • If you consent to future research, any leftover urine samples will be stored at the Menzies School of Health Research in Darwin, indefinitely, so they can be used for future research relating to extension of this project or closely related projects.
  • If you do not consent to future research, your samples will be destroyed at the completion of the sub study.
  • Future research is important to advance science and public health. Your samples may be used with information from other sources outside typical clinical research settings (e.g., from public research databases), however, they will not be combined with other information in a way that could identify you.
  • You may request that your stored samples be destroyed at any time by contacting the sub study lead, using the contact details provided.

What if I withdraw from this sub study?

You can withdraw from the sub study and/or from future use of your samples at any time, just notify a member of the SNAP study team.

If you withdraw, we will keep any information we have collected about you up until you withdraw. If you do not agree with this, you should not join this substudy.

Substudies in Progress

SNAP Trial


Combination Cefazolin with Ertapenem for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

All Interested
Substudy in Progress


Daptomycin vs. Vancomycin for the Treatment of MRSA bacteremia

All Interested
Substudy in Progress


Profiling the genetic and epigenetic determinants that predispose to severe manifestations of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

All Interested
Substudy in Progress